Among the best known and valued varieties is the Moraiolo. In terms of the development of its content, it has always been the best to adapt itself to rocky terrain. It has a small fruit that matures late, and a strong resistance to separation from the branch. Its rusticity is the reason that the variety has come to be used in places where there is no other cultural or varietal alternative. The trees live for centuries, lending their own particular magic to the extraordinary beauty of Umbria.
Although the Umbrian climate is not the best in terms of producing large quantities of olives, it is particularly favorable in terms of obtaining olive oils of particular value. The brusque changes of temperature that occur in September and October stimulate the trees to defend themselves from the stress, causing them to accumulate phenolic substances that protect the oil from deteriorating. These components are in part responsible for the nutritional and sensorial characteristics that are typical of Umbrian olive oils. Thanks to them we are able to distinguish the famous and well loved bitter and sharp notes that are typical of Umbrian oils.
This is even more evident due to the presence of some unusual varieties.
The climate lends maximum organoleptic quality and favors the adaptation of the olive in zones that are not otherwise particularly favorable, and so the cultivars find optimal conditions for the development of quality.
This variety was probably imported centuries ago, and today can finally be considered typically Umbrian. It is present in the areas of Giano and Montefalco, and it is believed to have been introduced by the friars of the San Felice Abbey, near which the most ancient exemplars are found. Good agronomic characteristics and the quality of the oil make it adaptable to modern mechanized systems.
This variety is interesting due to its resistance to cold. It is found mostly in proximity to Mt. Pennino, in the township of Rigali, near the Appenines of Umbria and The Marches.
If we cross the northern part of the Tevere Valley, we find the Borsciona, Morcona and Limona. These reign sovereign in an area that is not particularly adapted to olives, and these varieties were chosen above all for their resistance to low temperatures. Among these varieties are found the most particular flavors that Umbria can offer.
Facing Lake Trasimeno, the fairy tale princess that rules and delineates the picturesque scenery is the Dolce Agogia. Its name refers to the "docle goccia" (sweet drop) of oil, with the delicate yet defined aromatic notes of light Mediterranean perfumes. Voluminous trunks that have been dug up reveal their resistance down through time to even the most severe of freezes.
Traveling towards the area of Amerino we encounter a "gentle giant", the Raio, which for centuries has resisted a thousand periods of difficult weather.
More or less everywhere we find these three classic varieties of central Italy. They are productive, vigorous, and adapted to the environment. The Pendolino guarantees cross pollination and increases production in all of the trees that are compatible with it.